Isolation of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) strain Iowa106
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) appeared in the US in 2013 and has spread rapidly throughout North America. The virus causes gastroenteric disease in adults and is fatal to nursing piglets, whose only protection from the disease is via passive immunity from their mother. Currently, most US herds have been infected with PEDV. Therefore, the epidemic has transitioned to an endemic state with seasonal outbreaks of disease and death.
Consequently, a vaccine is critical to manage the disease and minimize losses to PEDV. Currently available vaccines are inactivated virus vaccines, and only enhance immunity in pigs that have previously survived PEDV disease. Furthermore, while investigations have demonstrated that the available vaccines reduce PEDV mortality, the decrease in piglet mortality is negligible. Therefore, a more-efficacious vaccine is needed to manage PEDV disease and minimize mortality.
Dr. Qiuhong Wang and her colleagues at The Ohio State University have isolated and cultured a PEDV strain ‘Iowa106’ that can be used for development of an attenuated vaccine. The defining feature of this strain is that Iowa106 carries a deletion in the gene that codes for the spike protein. Among porcine coronaviruses, spike proteins are known to be necessary for causing gastroenteric disease. As a result of this deletion in the spike gene, Iowa106 causes mild disease relative to the severe symptoms of wild-type PEDV strains. This finding is consistent with the effect of spike deletions in other porcine coronaviruses. Therefore, Iowa106 should be developed and evaluated as a vaccine strain for PEDV.
- Development of live-attenuated PEDV vaccine
- Development of in vitro PEDV immunoassays
- Discovery of pathways for PEDV pathology
- Candidate PEDV attenuated vaccine strain
- Established method for propagating the strain in cell culture